I understand your concern and assure you there is nothing to worry about. From what you have mentioned, this is one of those rarest cases, wherein accidently during surgical removal of the Maxillary 1st Molar, the root facing the palate known as the palatal root it has a chance of going into the maxillary sinus if the dentist is not careful. Now that you have mentioned that the root has come out through forceful sneezing and smell is still persistent it could be probably due to an abscess in the sinus. There is no infection because it would be associated with pus discharge and swollen appearance. If the smell persists then it could be due to the decay of surrounding teeth.
I would suggest you to get an investigation done called Orthopantamograph (OPG), which gives a description of the upper and lower jaws. In addition he would also need CT scan of the skull. This can give you a clearer picture. You can also use higher dose of antibiotics like Taxim o 200 mg twice a day after food for 5 days.