Thanks for posting your query.
I am Dr.R.K and I am pleased to assist you.
During digital rectal examination, the doctor adequately lubricates his examining finger before introducing it in to the anal opening. Anaesthetic jelly is usually used and there will not be any discomfort.
But if the lubrication is inadequate and if the procedure is not done correctly, there would discomfort during the examination and for sometime after the procedure is over.
But it will not persists for as long as 2 weeks as in your case.
From the picture there seem to be a small pile mass. (This itself is normal).If there is a pile mass / anal fissure it can cause similar pain. But from outside it is difficult to know for sure. For now I would recommend you to use an OTC Hemorrhoid cream like Preparation H twice a day for 3 days. Take high fibre diet. Avoid staring while passing motion. This should take care of the symptoms. Even beyond if the symptom persists consider visiting your Doctor,
I hope that answers your question.
Let me know if I can assist you further.