It seems that you are suffering from acute tonsillitis.
Tonsils are pair lymphoid organs that help in protecting the body against infections. They are located at the back of your throat. They usually get infected in their endeavor to protect the rest of the body from infections. It’s those tonsils that you see coming from the back of the throat. The infection can cause extreme throat pain and difficulty to swallow. They are usually caused by a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumonia and can be treated with antibiotics. It is only in the extreme cases that the tonsils don't get resolved or recurrent tonsillitis that a surgery is required to remove the tonsils. Early treatment is very important to treat the tonsil as it may lead to abscess or pus collection in the tissue.
I would recommend the following-
1)Home treatments such as gargling with salt water, drinking warm tea may help relieve discomfort and reduce the inflammation.
2)Take over the counter nonprescription drugs Tab. acetaminophen 250 mg twice a day or Tab. Ibuprofen to relive the pain.
3)Only as a last resort antibiotics specific to the bacteria can be tried. Usually Tab. Amoxicillin is used. You will need to get a throat swab and culture done before antibiotics.
4)The virus that causes mononucleosis (mono) can lead to tonsillitis that is as severe as tonsillitis caused by bacteria .If you develop swollen glands, consult a doctor for mono.
5)Take tab. Cetirizine to reduce the discomfort and itch associated with the tonsillitis.
6)Surgical removal of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) is only considered in serious complications, recurrent infections, or chronic infections that do not respond to treatment and interfere with daily functioning.